In order to reconstruct the Holocene landscape evolution of a relatively small catchment area in the Wetterau (Hessen), alluvial sediments were retrieved and analysed using various methods. Presented here are the results of the interpretation of botanical macro remains and pollen spores from three Holocene cores taken in the Wetter valley. The data show that a complete picture of the vegetation of the area during the Holocene is best achieved using both methods, since the pollen content reflects the regional vegetation, whereas the macro remains give a more detailed account of the local vegetation in the river valley. Apart from some aspects concerning the formation of the so-called black meadow soil (Schwarzer Auenboden) and Holocene flood loams, indication of (e.g. Mesolithic) human activities in the Wetter valley was found.